The Time Travel and Ending of “Edge of Tomorrow” Explained

edge-of-tomorrow

Last night, I went to see the new Tom Cruise and Emily Blunt science-fiction film Edge of Tomorrow, which is based on the Japanese manga All You Need Is Kill.

The racial cross-casting of Cage’s character — he is inspired by Japanese protagonist Keichi in the manga — aside, this film is phenomenal. Nerds and feminists — and especially nerd feminists — will adore this movie. It’s sharp, funny, entertaining, compelling, and visually stunning. Haters of Tom Cruise get to see Tom Cruise get killed about a hundred times in stunt scenes that Cruise himself described as “channeling Wile E. Coyote” on Daily Show last night. Emily Blunt’s Rita is stellar: she is the aspirational super-soldier, and not the simpering girlfriend; she’s also got a bad-ass giant sword. Those who loved Pacific Rim‘s portrayal of a male-female peer relationship that was largely non-sexual will adore the relationship between Rita and Cruise’s Cage in this film.

Basically, it’s just really good. Go see it. I’ll wait.

Okay, now that you’ve seen it — did you have all kinds of thoughts and questions about those aliens and the “time travel” in this movie? Snoopy and I did, too, and we geeked out over a late-night dinner about the science of how what happened could have happened. Here’s what we came up with, and I’m posting about it because — goshdarn it — I think we really figured this thing out.

Spoilers! This post will spoil the entire movie.

edge-of-tomorrow-suit

Okay, so the conceit of the film is that these aliens, called Mimics, have a looping “time travel”-like power that allows them to reset a day, memories intact, whenever they are in danger. That power gets transferred to Cruise’s Cage, setting the whole film off. All You Need Is Kill has a similar conceit, but from the manga’s Wikipedia page, other aspects of the Mimics seem different than those of Edge of Tomorrow. So this post is going to treat the Edge of Tomorrow Mimics as if they are stand-alone.

The “time travel” of the Edge of Tomorrow Mimics isn’t really time travel, it’s consciousness-travelling (similar to the conceit of the travesty that was X-Men: Days of Future Past): the Mimics — and by extension Cage — are not physically travelling from one timepoint to another; instead, their minds are jumping backwards to an earlier timepoint, allowing them to alter the course of time by making decisions informed by a possible future.

But, how does this really work? What is the relative role of the Alphas (the glowing sentinel Mimics) and the Omega (the central core that Snoopy thought was heavily inspired by Starship Troopers‘ Brain Bug)? And, isn’t this just one giant incubator for alternative universes? (To that last point, the answer is yes.)

Edge-of-Tomorrow-Mimics

There are two clues: 1) the Mimics are actually a single organism with each individual Mimic type acting in tandem with the whole, and 2) the “resetting” power always bringing Cage back to the same point in time. The key is to think about the Mimics not as some evil, super-intelligent being; instead, think of it as a creature acting purely on instinct. Think of it like biology.

The Mimic is an organism whose sole purpose is to conquer planets, and has evolved a complex self-defense mechanism to ensure its own propagation. The Mimic drones are the “claws” — the Mimics’ primary defense system. The Alphas are “sentinels” that exist to gauge the degree to which any threat makes it past the drones; if something kills an Alpha, this indicates sufficient danger to instinctively trigger the Mimics’ final self-defense mechanism: the looping.

And how does that work? In addition to its primary function to coordinate the actions of all drones and Alphas, the Omega has an additional characteristic. The Omega Mimic exists simultaneously at three points in time. If you think of time as a linear dimension, each of us occupies a single point on that line. The Omega Mimic exists instead as a line connecting three points spanning an approximate 48 hour period: the “distant past”, the “present-past”, and the “future-present”. The “present-past” point serves as the main anchor point: a fixed position in time from which to (routinely) reset the day. From that point in time, the Omega extends a version of itself towards the “future-present” like a cell that moves by extending a tendril ahead to test a space out to see if it’s safe.

A macrophage extends a "foot" out into space to "test the waters" before moving its entire body to the new position.
A macrophage extends a “foot” out into space to “test the waters” before moving its entire body to the new position.

And, like cells, if the Omega encounters danger in that future (as evidenced by the death of an alpha) it instinctively retracts back to its first anchor point and tries going in a different direction.

And what about the “distant past”? That’s a reserve anchor point that allows the Omega to reset from even farther back in time, allowing it to never be fully committed to a single temporal direction. If things get really dicey, it will retract far enough away to move in a completely different direction, entirely. If we think of it spatially, the “present-past” and “future-present” are like taking steps after deciding to go left; the “distant-past” exists as a mechanism to abandon going left entirely.

So how did Cage get the power to loop? Well, the Alphas are “sentinels”: as deadly as a drone, but their true power lies in their blood. If the looping power is a final self-defense mechanism for the Mimics, than the death of an Alpha would be the trigger to initiate a reset. Mixture of Cage’s blood with a dying Alpha (somehow — this is never explained and defies biology) integrated Cage into the Mimic’s  network of sentinel Alphas. In essence, as far as the Omega was concerned, he was another Alpha. Every time Cage died, the Omega mistook this for a signal that it was in danger and triggered a loop.

Cage was never in control of the looping power. The Omega was being fooled into looping by thinking Cage was an endlessly dying Alpha sentinel.

edge-of-tomorrow-emily-blunt

Update: (I solidified this particular detail after this post was written, so am adding it now). The “time travel”, specifically, is psychic-based and is channeled through the Omega. Basically, when the Omega is given a signal to loop, it pulls a clone or mirror of all the memories of all its network of itself and its Alphas (probably not the drones, that’s huge amount of processing for limited gain) and creates a copy of those memories in the Omega. Then, it sends that entire data package through itself to the “present past” anchor point, and then redistributes those memories out to the Mimic network (and to Cage, who is a pseudo-Alpha). From the perspective of an Alpha, this would appear to be like you just traveled back in time, but really you just got all the memories and life experiences of a future Cage who made different choices.

So, why did the Mimics send him to the dam and why didn’t they try to kill him when he was there? Well, an organism that evolves such a complex self-defense mechanism will also likely have a mechanism for repairing problems when they arise. In this case, this “time travel” self-defense mechanism has one serious flaw: it would trap the Omega in a perpetual loop if there were an Alpha that was weak or broken, endlessly throwing itself into harm’s way when there isn’t sufficient danger to warrant a “reboot”. There needs to be a self-repair mechanism for the Mimics to identify and correct such a problem.

The visions seen by Rita, and then later by Cage, were intermixed with their own memories (hence Cage sees the dam just as he reboots), and it is this repair system taking effect: the Omega sent a specific signal that would attract Alphas to a single location, where they could be safely disposed of far away from the location of the Omega itself  (this is to keep the Omega safe in case the defective alpha is dangerous). When Cage arrived at the dam, the drone and the Alpha stopped Cage from killing himself because they don’t want to loop again, since the whole point of the mechanism is to stop unnecessary looping. It’s unclear what they would’ve done to Cage if he hadn’t killed himself, but most likely if he had been an actual Mimic, they would have removed him from the “sentinel” network by performing a process similar to the blood transfusion, and then killed him. That’s why the Alpha wounded him, but didn’t kill him.

So what about that ending?

After a blood transfusion, Cage is essentially excised from the Alpha network, no longer being mistaken by the Omega as a “sentinel”. And then stuff happens and he kills the Omega by dropping a bunch of grenades into it. But then he wakes up in the helicopter at the start of the film and all is right with the world?

Well, at the moment of his death, Cage’s blood mixes with that of an Alpha, and he temporarily becomes a pseudo-Alpha again, which allows him to retain his memories in the reboot. Meanwhile, because the Omega was itself dying, one final loop was triggered by the Omega in a final desperate attempt to escape danger. The Omega looped not to the “present-past” point but to the “distant past” anchor point since the Omega itself wanted to escape an imminent threat to its core. Because of the Alpha’s blood, Cage went along for the ride and woke up with the Omega at the “distant past” timepoint.

But, since the Omega exists at multiple points in time (rather than a single moving point) and was actually killed in the “future-present”, the explosion actually rippled back in time and killed the Omega at all the other time points, too. So, when Cage wakes up, he wakes up at the “distant-past” anchor point along with his memories at the precise position in time that the Omega kept anchored to in reserve, and when it blows up. This allows for the lovely ending where everyone we watched die horrifically in the movie get to live again in blissful ignorance.

And does Cage now have time-traveling powers? Is he immortal? No. Being an Alpha only ever meant he was a sentinel, invoking the looping powers of the Omega upon every death. He could never himself loop. With the Omega dead, Cage is back to being a normal dude with one final lease on life.

So, what do you think? Does this make sense? Or is this all the mad ramblings of one non-physicist fangirl? I would love to hear your thoughts!

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  • cccmachine

    why didnt Ritas men help them in the assault on the Louvre

  • MikeR

    Good post. But
    ‘The “time travel” of the Edge of Tomorrow Mimics isn’t really time travel, it’s consciousness-travelling’
    “isn’t this just one giant incubator for alternative universes? (To that last point, the answer is yes.)”

    Scary. If one believes in alternative universes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Many-worlds_interpretation), what is actually happening here is that the Omega (or Cage) are waking up in one version of reality – with memories of another parallel version. And if that parallel version already had numerous sets of memories, this new version of Cage gets all of them too. He _thinks_ he’s lived through numerous repeats of the day.

    That’s all. There is no “reset”. When Cage dies, the rest of the world around him goes on. The film didn’t show us, but Rita stands there bewildered, holding her smoking gun, thinking, “Uh-oh. Whatinhell do I do now?” If she doesn’t get court-martialed for his murder, she and her team will go into doomed battle, like all their parallel counterparts.

    The Omega isn’t “resetting” to save the day. It is taking the opportunity to provide another version of itself with better information to be even more successful in the same situation. Cage, on the other hand, is struggling desperately, repeatedly – to find one single version of reality where his side doesn’t get completely destroyed.

    An article on how this same issue ruins “Groundhog Day” (also starring Rita): http://www.overthinkingit.com/2014/06/05/groundhog-day-time-loop-parallel-universe/

  • MikeR

    I don’t understand, by the way, why Rita said that she’s “tried it [sex]” many times. What could she have tried? With some guy off the street? How would that get her back her powers? I think it makes a lot more sense [still a dumb idea!] to try it now with Cage, who really has the Alpha blood.
    It must mean that she “tried it” with her lover Kendrick. She hoped that she could save him by making him into an Alpha as well. But she saw him die 300 times – it just didn’t work.

    I’ve got a different problem with that idea. Why couldn’t she save him? Do like Cage does with her, knock him out of the way! Or get him onto a different plane, or break his leg the day before. There’s only one possible answer: Unlike Cage, who was a non-combatant parasite scum and got killed within five minutes, Rita was an awesome super-soldier. She survived in battle for 23 hours, 59 minutes, and 55 seconds. When she died and was drenched in the Alpha’s blood, she was _immediately dropped back into the beginning of the battle_ 24 hours earlier – just in time to see Kendrick die 20 feet away. She never had a chance to try to save him. She certainly never had a chance to try making him into an Alpha.
    [According to this, she must have had her conversations with the scientist/welder guy in the middle of the battle. I don’t know if scientists fight.]

  • MikeR

    I guess his name was Hendricks, not Kendrick.

  • MikeR

    I have been trying to think if Cage and Rita could have made better plans with the General. I don’t understand his snooty brush-off: “In a million years you’ll never be mentally equipped to deal with this.” Why not? A top general who just more-or-less bought into their story?
    Why isn’t a nice 50 megaton H-bomb on top of the Leuvre a better plan than sending in half-a-dozen guys with machine guns? I’m wondering if the Omega doesn’t have a defense for that: he or she is fifty feet underwater, there’s an Alpha above ground nearby. If the Alpha dies first in the H-bomb blast, the Omega might be shielded by the water for the fraction of a second needed to do a reset. I’m not sure, though; I imagine that Ground Zero of a H-bomb blast gets totally pretty instantly. I think it’s worth a try.
    I think it would’ve been a good idea to stick the device-thing into Cage’s leg in the General’s office, instead of another pointless snooty reply that “it’s my business what I’ll do with it”. Of course, he may have been confused the first time through, but they actually had the car chase the second or tenth time through. Stick it in his leg and shoot him afterwards if you need to.

    I am astonished that the Scientist/Welder guy was able to develop such a device without an Alpha to experiment on. Astonished and highly dubious.
    Is it possible to capture an Alpha? They are rare (that one in 6.18 million statistic is ridiculous; is the Census Bureau operating in Devastated Europe? Are there really that many Mimics?) and you have to be real careful to catch them without killing them. Do they kill themselves when captured?

    Is this whole Omega theory based on Rita’s visions? If so, it wasn’t just “a theory”, as Cage called it, it’s a total guess. There might be hundreds of Omegas. Or the Alphas might be the Omegas and therefore react to one of their number’s getting killed by resetting. But – all’s well that ends well!

  • g33k h0und

    actually a fantastic explanation i feel a lot of the people criticizing aren’t reading everything you wrote. good job

  • Charles

    I never believed Rita here when she told Cage (re: sex to transfer the looping power): “Yep, tried it”.. I took her words and tone to mean that she figured Cage was trying to simply make moves on her (even if he himself was being sincere), so that was her attempt to blow him off.

  • Charles

    Good question.. I always viewed the Omega’s resetting of the day (and it is more or less explained as such by Rita) as more of an instinctive, rather than a conscious, reaction on the part of the Omega. As such, maybe the reset wasn’t something the Omega could just do at-will; rather it had to be triggered by the death of an Alpha, or someone the Omega *thought* was an Alpha (i.e Cage)

  • Charles

    Exactly.. Even Cage told her he knew he no longer had the power; he “felt” it.

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