Hollywood’s “Strange” Erasure of Asian Characters | #AStrangeWhitewashing

May 29, 2015
Marvel's Ancient One
Marvel’s Ancient One

A mere week after I wrote a post swearing off of sharing fan news, the fandom insidiously pulled me back in.

This week, rumours began circulating that Tilda Swinton was in casting negotiations for Marvel’s upcoming Dr. Strange film starring Benedict Cumberbatch in the titular role. Swinton is being considered for the role of the Ancient One, a nearly-immortal Tibetan sorcerer who becomes the young Dr. Strange’s mystic tutor and personal mentor.

That’s right. Tilda Swinton — a British actor whose Wikipedia article notes that she can trace her Anglo-Scot heritage back to the Middle Ages and who is about as far from “Tibetan” as one might get — may be cast to play a racebent and genderbent version of one of the few Asian characters of prominence in the Mystic Marvel world.

Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton

Let me first make a confession: I don’t know much about Mystic Marvel in general or the Ancient One in particular. I have no particular love for Dr. Strange or his backstory.

But, already thinkpieces are being written declaring Swinton’s rumoured casting a major feminist victory for the Marvel Universe for its willingness to recast a major male Marvel superhero’s mentor as a strong female character.

The Ancient One is one of many embodiments of the Orientalism pervasive in superhero comics, wherein the mystic arts are inextricably connected with a fantastic and exaggerated imagining of the Far East that exist primarily to imbue Western and White visitors with ancient magic or martial arts skills and elderly East Asian men with long white beards and yellow skin are only too eager to help facilitate that process. The examples abound: Iron Fist’s Yu-Ti of the Tibetan city of K’un-L’unIron Man’s Ho Yinsen, and even the world of Tian that has reappeared with distinctly fetishistic overtones in the most recent season of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Popularized at a time when Fu Manchu stereotypes were recreated with frequency in comics, the Ancient One is no socially progressive character.

aloha-movie-poster

When Asians are not cast in these Orientalist overtones, we are frequently rendered entirely invisible. In Cameron Crowe’s latest film “Aloha”, the state of Hawaii — where more than 50% of residents identify as Asian American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander — is mysteriously White-washed into an Aryan paradise of palm trees, aviator sunglasses, and sandy beaches. The word “aloha” is appropriated without regard for the word’s weight and history. The actors drape themselves with leis complete devoid of cultural meaning. Emma Stone — another White actor — plays the hapa (a term meaning “half” in Native Hawaiian, used to refer to multiracial Native Hawaiians) and biracial Asian American character, Allison Ng. Media Action Network for Asian Americans (MANAA) issued a statement reading in part:

“Aloha” comes in a long line of films (The Descendants, 50 First Dates, Blue Crush, Pearl Harbor) that uses Hawaii for its exotic backdrop but goes out of its way to exclude the very people who live there.  It’s like tourists making a film about their stay in the islands, which is why so many locals hate tourists.  It’s an insult to the diverse culture and fabric of Hawaii…

…Crowe hired at least 30 white actors, 5 actors to play Afghans, and the biggest roles for APIs were ‘Indian pedestrian,’ ‘upscale Japanese tourist,’ and ‘upscale restaurant guests.’  They didn’t even have names.  How can you educate your audience to the ‘rich history’ of Hawaii by using mostly white people and excluding the majority of the people who live there and who helped build that history—AAPIs?””

Both Marvel and DC’s superhero universes are unbearably White, with few characters of colour playing more than secondary or tertiary roles. Where forced to present characters whose comic book counterparts are people of colour, the studios have invoked race-bending as a narrative sleight of hand to distract from the regressive origins of many of their more Orientalist characters. DC cast Ken Watanabe in a Japanese version of Ra’s al Ghul — who in the comics is a stereotype-riddled Middle Eastern caricature inexplicably heading a band of Japanese ninjas. The Batman films later revealed that the mantle of Ghul is adopted by each successive leader of the League of Shadows, and that Watanabe was only a public decoy. This origin story effectively erased any meaningful discussion of race with regard to the Ghul character (later, Talia — originally also of Middle Eastern descent in the comics — was also presented as French since in the mythos of the Nolanverse she is the daughter of the French Ducard/Ghul played by Liam Neesom). Marvel performed a similar bait-and-switch when they cast Ben Kinglsey to play an ambiguously Asian version of the Fu Manchu-knockoff character of the Mandarin, only to reveal in-plot that Kingsley was a penniless actor hired by the film’s main villain to play the caricatured role; the “real” Mandarin was Guy Pearce.

It seems as if Asian-ness can only occupy two poles in Hollywood: extreme fetishism or total invisibility. Yes, the Ancient One is horribly Orientalist: yet, historic racism’s solution can neither be faithful recreation of those offensive stereotypes nor the total erasure of people of colour.

The urge of feminists to celebrate a possible White-washing as some sort of socially progressive victory is disturbing, particularly to those of us who identify as feminists of colour who find ourselves being asked to tolerate the erasure of that which would represent our race in order to justify a representation of our gender.

There have been only a handful of Asian American male actors to land a role in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. What would be progressive for the filmmakers behind Dr. Strange would be to actually cast an Asian or Asian American (male) actor in the role, while updating the character away from his Orientalist stock origin story — which would be a novelty in the trope-laden world of superhero comics. Alternatively, there’s no need to race-bend the Ancient One in order to gender-bend the character: there are so many talented Asian and Asian American female actors one might choose from.

But, no. We’re looking at Tilda Swinton as a Tibetan sorcerer. Once again, #AStrangeWhitewashing from Hollywood, indeed.

  • mike4ty4

    I wonder: why can’t you think of a single Asian actress who could play it? What do you watch?

  • mike4ty4

    “Unless your ultimate point is that you can handle a White woman in a position of authority over a male character, but have difficulty tolerating an Asian American woman In that kind of empowered role?”

    It seems to be _you_ that’s the one who has that difficulty, considering that _you_ are the one who is saying this character should _not_ be played by Asians. So your question is both head-poppingly contradictory and laughable beyond imagination.

  • Mr0011011 .

    You said “Personally I would be more disturbed if they got an Asian/AA female to play the role than a different race/gender.”

    So you would actually be DISTURBED by an Asian?

  • Your_Mama1

    You are a jackass.

  • Please do not use ad hominem attacks or upvote your own comments. Thanks.

  • Sgt. Barnes

    How is it nobody complains of blackwashing white characters (Kingpin, The Human Torch, Ben Urich.. )?!?!?!?!

  • Karen Huddleston

    Because black actors are under represented in Hollywood so it isn’t taking any significant number of roles away from white actors, they have plenty left to go around.

  • well crap. I was looking forward to this movie. Oh well, I’ll just see the rest of them

  • well crap. I was looking forward to this movie. Oh well, I’ll just see the rest of them

  • McCreery

    In that case, there’s nothing wrong with Emma Stone being cast as a mixed-race person that looks white.

    Actors who are actually mixed-race but look white can play any white role, of which there are plenty, as you say, so casting Emma Stone in this case isn’t “taking any significant number of roles away”.

  • Karen Huddleston

    Sure, but that doesn’t have anything to do with the comment I was replying to.

  • imutau

    Um? First rule of the “Ben Affleck DareDevil” is that you never speak of it….Never happened!! No the real DareDevil is on Netflix and they cast that Kingpin perfectly IMHO.

    The Human Torch and the FF property is run by a bunch of inept baffoons who have never handled that particular Marvel franchise well.

    Vondie Curtis-Hall is a great actor regardless of color and to be honest Ben Urich is a minor character it that world. But I’ll give you that one.

  • imutau

    @mudduck9000 Lol!!

  • Hiram José Rodríguez

    Is the Ancient one really a stereotype or is he just an archetype… Marvel is full of excuses, that seem to be nothing more than poorly done damage control. See this video on the subject of whitewashing Asian roles. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IIP6YeTBh8

  • Mare

    He is Tibetan. And that’s a no-no for China censors. Probably the same reason why they white-washed Mandarin.

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