This is the last post in a three-part Memorial Day Weekend series honouring Asian American veterans.
General Eric Shinseki is a retired four-star General, who has served in the United States Army from 1965 – 2003, including tours in Europe and two tours served during the Vietnam War. While in Vietnam, Shinseki stepped on a land mine and lost part of his foot.
Upon returning to the U.S., Shinseki held a variety of command positions, ultimately being promoted to serve as the Army’s 28th Vice Chief of Staff in 1998. In 1999, Shinseki was again promoted, serving as the Army’s 34th Chief of Staff for four years before his retirement in 2003.
Why He’s Awesome?
General Shinseki holds the distinction of being the first Asian American to receive the rank of four-star general, and he is also the only Asian Ameican to ever serve as the Army Chief of Staff. He is the recipient of multiple military awards, including the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the nation’s highest peacetime award.
While Army Chief of Staff, General Shinseki made national headlines when he publicly disagreed with then-Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld in testimony to the U.S. Senate Armed Forces Committee over how many troops would be necessary to re-build Iraq after the Iraq War. Shinseki estimated that several hundred thousand troops would be needed, in contrast to the much lower estimates made by Rumsfeld and the Pentagon. Although heavily criticized by the Bush White House at the time, Shinseki’s testimony has since proven to be accurate.
This post is the second of a three part series on awesome Asian veterans, written in commemoration of Memorial Day.
Tammy Duckworth joined the Army Reserve Officers’ Training Guard in 1990 while a graduate student in George Washington University, following in the footsteps of her father, who served in the military from World War II to Vietnam. In 1992, Duckworth joined the United States Army Reserve and trained to be a combat helicopter pilot, because it was one of the few combat jobs open to women. In 2004, Duckworth was serving with the Illinois National Guard in Iraq when the helicopter she was co-piloting was hit with a rocket-propelled grenade. Though Duckworth survived the subsequent explosion, she lost the lower parts of both legs.
Why She’s Awesome?
Returning to America, Duckworth received a Purple Heart, an Air Medal and an Army Commendation Medal. Following her experiences in Iraq, Duckworth also formed the Intrepid Foundation, which supports and advocates on behalf of injured veterans. Indeed, since returning from Iraq, Duckworth spent much of her time working to improve veteran care, speaking openly in criticism of the Bush Administration’s mishandling of this issue.
In 2006, Duckworth ran for, and won, the Democratic primary for Illinois’ 6th Congressional seat, despite having never before held an elected office. Unfortunately, later that year, Duckworth lost the seat to Republican challenger, Peter Roskam, by only 2% of the vote.
After losing the election in November 2006, Duckworth was appointed Director of Illinois’ Veteran Affairs, and in 2009, President Obama nominated Duckworth to the position of Assistant Secretary of Public and Intergovernmental Affairs for the Department of Veteran Affairs, a position she currently serves in the Obama Administration.
For Memorial Day Weekend, I’m writing three posts that will profile three awesome Asian American servicemen and veterans of the United States Armed Services. Today’s spotlight: Lt. Dan Choi.
Lt. Dan Choi is a former infantry officer who served in the United States Army for ten years, including two years in Iraq between 2006 and 2007. A graduate from the prestigious West Point Academy, Choi is a Arabic language specialist. In 2009, after a decade of service in the U.S. Army, Choi transferred to the New York National Guard.
Why He’s Awesome?
In March 2009, Choi appeared on The Rachel Maddow show, where he uttered three little words on-air: “I am gay”.
Because the act of disclosing your homosexality is a violation of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, which was implemented by the Clinton Administration, Lt. Dan Choi received a letter of dismissal from the New York National Guard. Choi fought the decision, and faced a military trial that ultimately again recommended Choi for dismissal for being gay. However, discharge procedures were never finalized, and Choi continues to serve in the New York National Guard to this day.
Meanwhile, Choi has become one of the most prominent critics of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, a policy that forbids “homosexual conduct” in active servicemen and that disproportionately affects women and minority officers. He has repeatedly urged the Obama Administration to repeal DADT, and he founded “KnightsOut” an advocacy group for LGBT memebers of West Point. Choi was arrestedtwicethis year for chaining himself to the White House fence in order to raise awareness about DADT’s negative effects on gay military personnel.
For their vocal and ardent activism regarding “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, Choi and all the other LGBT APIA servicemen who have taken a brave public stand against DADT definitely deserve recognition this Memorial Day Weekend.
It’s almost the end of May. Do you know your Asian-American history?
Most of America isn’t aware that May is Asian-American Heritage Month. It’s a celebration that started in 1978, when Congress urged President Jimmy Carter to declare the week of May 4th “Asian-American Heritage Week.” (That date was chosen to coincide with the arrival of the first Japanese immigrants on May 7, 1843, and with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad — built largely by Chinese laborers — on May 10, 1869.) More recently in 1990, following another vote by Congress, President George H.W. Bush expanded Asian-American Heritage Week to encompass the entire month of May.
Sadly, Asian-American history and heritage is rarely taught in U.S. public schools. So for those of you who’ve missed such curriculum, here’s a list of 10 factoids you may not have known about the history of Asian-Americans in this country:
I don’t know nothun’ ‘bout “Avatar: The Last Airbender”. Seriously. I haven’t seen so much as five seconds of the cartoon. Heck, I generally avoid Nickelodeon products like the plague. Maybe that makes me a bad fangirl. I don’t know. But that’s also why I’m like a year late on blogging about the racial controversy surrounding this movie.
What I do know about Avatar: The Last Airbender is what I read about on Wikipedia. The show sounds a little bit like an updated version of Dragonball. Basically, Avatar is set in an Asian-inspired fantasy world where people are capable of manipulating the four elements: earth, air, fire and water. The main character of the show, named Aang, is an Avatar — which makes him special in a way that the Wikipedia articles fail to adequately explain. From there, it seems as if Aang (who starts out with an Airbending ability), and his animal familiar — a flying… buffalo… — embark on some crazy adventures to learn how to manipulate the remaining three elements and take out a genocidal Fire lord person.
The point here is that Aang, and many of his friends, are supposed to be clearly Asian. In fact, the Avatar world is based on many East Asian (and particularly Buddhist) concepts of chi, martial arts, and reincarnation. Not having watched Avatar, I was a little skeptical of exactly how obviously Asian the world of Avatar was — until I read that in Season 2, one of the characters learns to manipulate the fifth element: metal. The idea there being a fifth natural element, and that it is metal, is a uniquely East Asian idea. So, colour me convinced — Aang and his friends are Asian.
And as any parent of colour will tell you, finding shows and toys that help reinforce positive racial identification is quintessential. As CNN demonstrated in their updated Doll Test, kids rapidly internalize racial stereotypes of good and bad from TV and movies, particularly when they aren’t exposed to any other explicit discussions of race. When kids see images on television of good, smart kids being overwhelmingly White, while bad, dumb kids are overwhelmingly Black, they make connections between personal attributes and skin colour that alter their perception of the world. Hence, when kids are shown images of identical dolls differing only in skin tone, they will associate lighter skin tone with positive attributes and darker skin tone with negative attributes. This occurs regardless of the child’s own skin colour; in the CNN doll test, even Black children demonstrated preference towards lighter-skinned dolls. What remarkable self-hate these children are learning at the ages of 2 and younger — and all because of the dearth of positive, minority protagonists in children’s shows and toys.
No child of mine is going to grow up thinking that they are ugly or stupid because of their race. If and when I am a parent, my kids will not get blonde-haired, blue-eyed Barbie dolls for Christmas. I’ll probably be the parent who buys their kids the Jade Bratz or the Quick Kick G.I. Joe. My future children will watch Ni Hao, Kai Lan until their eyes bleed.
So, I can only imagine how valuable a show like Avatar: The Last Airbender is to today’s Asian parents, who use shows like these to instill some measure of racial self-esteem in their children.
And I can only imagine their disappointment rage when they learned that the live-action feature film based on the show, called just The Last Airbender (because, of course, the term “Avatar” is now inextricably linked to blue cat-people), was going to star a virtually all-White cast. Both Aang and Katara, the male and female protagonists, are played by unmistakably Caucasian actors (even though Katara is actually brown-skinned in the cartoon). The studios did the same calculus here that they did for other American remakes of classic Asian films (including The Ring, My Sassy Girl, and The Departed): there’s a belief in Hollywood that while Asian stories will sell, Asian faces won’t. These film executives are sending the message: “Asians simply aren’t familiar enough — not “American” enough — for White movie audiences to relate to”.
So you end up with White-washing of Asian movies and the take-home message, yet again, that Asians aren’t good enough to be the heroes. We’re neither good enough to play romantic leads nor are we heroic enough to have elemental energy-balls shooting out of our hands. Is it any wonder that kids are colourstruck?
To add insult to injury, apparently minorities aren’t good enough to play heroes, but we’re totally bad enough to play the villains. Not like I really know anything about Avatar, but from what I’ve read, the Fire Nation = the bad guys. And lo and behold — the folks behind The Last Airbender have no problem casting people of colour in the roles of the evil Fire people. Cliff Curtis, who is of Maori descent, plays the Big Bad Firelord Ozai. Aasif Mandvi and Dev Patel, two Asian Indian actors, play Firelord Ozai’s right-hand man and his son, respectively.
Which means that TheLast Airbender is going to be two hours of eye-candy schlock, reinforcing the same tired message to kids: White = good and heroic, and Brown = evil and genocidal.
And, while we’re on the subject, Prince of Persia (set to hit theatres this Friday) is yet another example of the White-washing of American cinema. I first saw the trailer for this movie in the theaters, and I literally (and I do mean literally — electroman can attest) yelled out to the screen in front of a crowded theatre audience, “What the FUCK?!? Jake Gyllenhaal‘s not Persian!”
You can’t fake your race with a bottle tan and four weeks of facial hair growth, Jake! Gemma Arterton, who plays the love interest of the Prince of Somwhere-That-Is-Clearly-Not-Persia, is British (although, at least she, unlike Jake Gyllenhaal, uses an accent to sound vaguely… uhm, Persian-ish?). And again, the White-washing of the cast is reserved only for the movie’s protagonists: Ben Kingsley, one of the most famous Asian Indian actors around, plays the primary villain of the movie.
Really? Way to ruin the first computer game I every played, Disney. Thanks, but no thanks. I think I’ll be boycotting that one, too.
Act Now! Join me (and a whole bunch of other angryAsians) in boycotting The Last Airbender when it hits theatres this July 2nd, and in boycotting Prince of Persia this Friday.