Congress Passes Bill To Provide Reparations to Guam World War II Survivors

December 12, 2016
The remnants of a World War II bunker on a beach in Guam. (Photo credit: ABC / Ben Bohane)
The remnants of a World War II bunker on a beach in Guam. (Photo credit: ABC / Ben Bohane)

Seventy five years after Imperial Japanese Army forces invaded the US-held territory of Guam on December 8, 1941 — leading to the rape, abuse, and killing of many of the island’s residents during the four years of its occupation by Japan — the US federal government is poised to provide reparations to Guam’s World War II survivors. Last week, Congress quietly included a measure to provide reparations to the 2017 National Defense Authorization Act, which establishes military spending for the upcoming fiscal year.

The spending bill was passed by the House in May with bipartisan support, with the vast majority of Republicans and 40 Democrats voting in favour. It was introduced by Senator John McCain and passed the Senate with 92 votes last Thursday. The Act is now headed to the White House, where President Obama is expected to sign the bill into law.

The inclusion of reparations for Guam’s World War II survivors in the 2017 NDAA is the culmination of a decades-old fight by Guam to have the US federal government recognize the significant war crimes committed against Guam’s indigenous people during the four-year occupation of the US territory by Japan.

In 1941, the US government largely ceded the territory to Japanese control after deciding not to increase military fortifications of Guam in the face of a likely Japanese invasion. This decision effectively abandoned the island’s more than 20,000 indigenous people — who by virtue of America’s standing claim of Guam as a US territory are American citizens — to Japanese control.

In the subsequent four years of Japanese rule, Guam’s indigenous people — the Chamorros — endured life under Japanese military occupation when many of their day-to-day activities and cultural practices were restricted. By the end of World War II, as Japan feared military defeat, Chamorros were forced at gunpoint to build defense infrastructure to ward off an American invasion of the island; those who refused were maimed or killed. Tens of thousands of Chamorros were also ordered into forced relocation into hastily built caps in the centre of the island, which resulted in the further loss of many Chamorro lives. American military forces landed at Guam on July 21, 1944 and killed most of the Japanese forces occupying the island, returning the island’s indigenous people to American control.

Earlier this year, an advocacy group for Guam’s World War II survivors announced a plan to sue the US federal government for reparations related to the brutal violence that they endured during the Japanese occupation. Now, Congress has included the following  Guam World War II Loyalty Recognition Act in this year’s National Defense Authorization Act:

Guam World War II Loyalty Recognition Act

TITLE LXXIII–GUAM WORLD WAR II LOYALTY RECOGNITION ACT

(Sec. 7302) Recognizes the suffering and the loyalty of the residents of Guam during the Japanese occupation of Guam in World War II.

(Sec. 7303) Directs the Department of the Treasury to establish a fund for the payment of claims submitted by compensable Guam victims and survivors of compensable Guam decedents.

(Sec. 7304) Directs Treasury to make specified payments to: (1) living Guam residents who were raped, severely injured, interned, subjected to forced labor or marches, or forced to hide to evade internment, as a result of, or incident to, such occupation and subsequent liberation; and (2) survivors of compensable residents who died in war (after payments have been made to surviving Guam residents).

(Sec. 7305) Directs the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission to adjudicate claims and determine the eligibility of individuals for payments. Specifies procedures and requirements for filing claims, adjudicating claims, and making payments.

(Sec. 7306) Requires the Department of the Interior to establish a grant program for research, educational, and media activities that memorialize the events surrounding the occupation of Guam during World War II or honor the loyalty of the people of Guam during such occupation.

(Sec. 7307) Authorizes appropriations for: (1) Guam World War II Claims Payments and Adjudication, and (2) the Guam World War II Grants Program.

If the bill is signed by President Obama, Guam’s World War II survivors and their family will be entitled to up to $25,000 related for each filed claim. Sadly, this Act may come too late for many Chamorros: advocates say that many of Guam’s “greatest generation” continue to pass away every day. Reported the Pacific Daily News earlier this year on the announced lawsuit against the US federal government:

Former Lt. Gov. Frank Blas Sr., a WWII survivor, said the issue isn’t about money, but about recognition for him and other war survivors who suffered during the war.

He said the act would show the United States’ sincerity towards the people of Guam.

“Where is the justice for our sufferings?” he said.

He said there needs to be closure soon because the reality is that survivors are dying every day.

“What would it take for us here on Guam to be recognized,” he said.

Comment Policy

Before posting, please review the following guidelines:

  • No ad hominem attacks: A person's identity or background is not up for debate.
  • Be courteous: Respect everyone else in this space.
  • Present evidence: This space endeavours to encourage academic and rational debate around identity politics. Do your best to build an argument backed not just with your own ideas, but also with science.
  • Don't be pedantic: Listen to those debating you not just for places to attack, but also where you might learn and even change your own opinion. Repeatedly arguing the same point irrespective of presented counterfacts will now be considered a violation of this site's comment policy.
  • Respect the humanity of all groups: To elevate the quality of debate, this site will no longer tolerate (racial, cultural, gender, etc.) supremacist or inferiority lines of argumentation. There are other places on the internet where nationalist arguments can be expressed; this blog is not those places.
  • Don't be an asshole: If you think your behaviour would get you punched in the face outside of the internets, don't say it on the internets.
  • Don't abuse Disqus features: Don't upvote your own comments. Don't flag other people's comments without reasonable cause. Basically, don't try to game the system. You are not being slick.

Is your comment not approved or deleted? Here are some common reasons why:

  • Did you sign in? You are required to register an account with Disqus or one of your social media accounts in order to comment.
  • Did a comment get flagged? Comments will be default be published but flagged comments will be temporarily removed from view until they are reviewed by me.
  • Did you not play nice? You may have gotten banned and a bunch of your comments may have been therefore deleted. Sorry.

I monitor all comment threads, and try to address comments requiring moderation within 24-48 hours. Comments that violate this comment policy may receive a warning and removal of offensive content; overt or repeat violations are subject to deletion and/or banning of comment authors without warning.

I reserve final decision over how this comment policy will be enforced.

Summary:

Play nice and don't be a jerk, and you'll do just fine.