Harvard Sophomore’s Death Reveals Inadequacies of Campus #AAPI Mental Health Resources

Andrew Sun, '16. Photo Credit: Galt MacDermot
Andrew Sun, ’16. Photo Credit: Galt MacDermot

(H/T Angry Asian Man)

By all accounts, Andrew Sun ’16 was a “bright student”, a “humble listener” and a “mentor”. He was well-known on the Harvard campus for his involvement in the Harvard College Faith in Action group, a non-denominational Christian group. So, news of Sun’s death on Sunday evening from injuries sustained from a 7-story fall came as a shock and surprise; more so when the death was ruled a suicide. From the Harvard Crimson:

Sun, an Economics concentrator from New Jersey, died early Monday morning in Massachussets General Hospital, where he was being treated for injuries he sustained after jumping off a Boston building on Sunday. Sun, who was 20 years old at the time of his death, was a resident of Pforzheimer House.

In an email to Pforzheimer House residents, co-House Masters John R. Durant and Anne Harrington ’82 invited students to a community gathering in Pforzheimer on Thursday at 8 p.m. According to the email, there will be readings, music, a candle-lighting ceremony, and collective and private opportunities to share memories of Sun.

Well-known on campus for his active involvement in Harvard College Faith in Action, a non-denominational Christian group, Sun spent much of his time at the College praying with classmates and reading scripture, according to friends.

“He was always really eager to reach other people and pray for and with other people,” Shaun Y.S. Lim ’15, the president of HCFA, said.

According to Lim, Sun and a few of his friends started a morning prayer initiative last fall and invited community members to pray and read scripture with them at 8:45 a.m. every weekday.

John T. Hoffer ’16, a member of the service organization Phillips Brooks House Association, wrote in an email that Sun was also dedicated to mentoring with PBHA and had spent this past J-term tutoring children with the South Boston School program.

Sun’s death reminds us of the rarely discussed, but nonetheless critical issue of depression among college-aged students. As many as 1 in 3 college students experience symptoms of depression during their time on-campus, and college-aged students have among the highest risk for suicide.

For Asian Americans, on-campus depression can be compounded by several factors. First, cultural stigmas against conversations on mental illness are highly prevalent among several Asian American and Pacific Islander cultures, which can severely reduce the rate of self-reporting and treatment; fewer than 2% of Asian Americans typically report symptoms of treatment to a doctor (roughly 1/4th the rate of White Americans). Consequently, Asian Americans, particularly Asian American women, die by suicide at significantly higher rates than non-Asians. In addition, Southeast Asian Americans have far higher rates of PTSD, anxiety, and suicide than many other groups, even other refugee groups.

Furthermore, students who do seek treatment often find on-campus mental health resources inadequate. In addition to the general apathy most Ivies have towards investing in comprehensive mental health resources for their students, what mental health resources that are available rarely cater specifically to Asian American students, or other students of colour which can further discourage at-risk Asian American students from seeking treatment.

Recently, I gave a talk at Yale where we discussed the university’s abject failures in addressing on-campus depression; one student shared a horrifying story of a mental health center that treated depressed patients like they were cattle on a conveyor belt, and in many ways exacerbated the very depression that the student had gone to seek help with. For four sessions, the therapist seemed almost completely disinterested in listening to the student, only perking up at certain points to ask completely unrelated questions in a clumsy attempt at diagnosis – “Do you cut?”, “Are you a compulsive shopper?”, “Do you feel sleepy a lot?”, etc. At the end of the four sessions, the ‘therapist’ handed the student a business card and said: “if you plan on killing yourself, call this number after 5pm.”

This is the type of ‘treatment’ that an Ivy League university thinks is appropriate for treating and supporting its students who are battling symptoms of depression that will affect one-third of its population at any given time; and this administrative laissez-faire attitude is common at most institutions of higher education, including Harvard University. This is just unacceptable.

In fact, Harvard, like at many other Ivies, on-campus suicide is more prevalent than we think. Writes the Crimson:

Using a 5-year time frame focused solely on the undergraduate population, The Crimson found a significantly higher suicide rate [at Harvard].

Counting only enrolled undergraduates who committed suicide either on or off campus, the College’s suicide rate is 18.18 per 100,000. When students who committed suicide while taking a leave of absence are included, that rate increases to 24.24 per 100,000.

Even the most conservative calculation, made using only enrolled college students who committed suicide on campus, yields a rate of 12.12 per 100,000—over twice the rate provided by UHS last year, and nearly twice the national average for college students.

Yet, school administration at Ivy universities across the East Coast are largely silent on this issue. Sun’s death reminds us that there is still a lot of work to do in addressing the issue of depression and on-campus suicide, particularly as it impacts Asian American students.

My thoughts and prayers go out to Andrew Sun’s friends and family, and the rest of the Harvard community; and I urge you to devote some of your energy during this time to working towards making on-campus environments more supportive towards students struggling with depression.

Please read my Top 10 Myths of Asian American Mental Health post, and check out these other resources:

If you or someone you know is depressed, self-harming, and/or is contemplating suicide, here are the resources available:

  • 1-800-273-8255 (TALK), 24hr National Suicide Prevention Hotline, >150 languages available
  • 1-877-990-8585, 24hr Asian LifeNet Hotline, Cantonese, Mandarin, Japanese, Korean, Fujianese available
Did you like this post? Please support Reappropriate on Patreon!
  • Yun Xu

    Jenn, any studies on what most common reasons for Asian depression/suicide?

  • Since depression isn’t really quantifiable like that, not really no; not that I’m aware of. It’s not like people typically say “I got an F, and that’s why I entered a depressive episode”; depression is biological, and there’s usually not a hard-and-fast easy-to-identify “trigger event” or something.

  • Yun Xu

    Here are some common non-biological triggers:
    divorce
    amputation
    war
    chronic unemployment
    disfigurement
    bankruptcy
    terminal illness
    chronic illness
    loss of a sense
    rape
    lost a child (murder, abortion, miscarriage)
    addictions

    What books did you read to support your pro-psychiatry views. I want to see the proof for myself because I keep running into contradictions within and outside of the psychiatric industry.

    If the the chemical imbalance theory is correct then I shouldn’t be seeing so many contradictions, right?

    ps. I know the difference between sadness and depression, but it’s a very grey area and open to interpretation by those who decide what is and isn’t normal.

  • @Yun,

    A few things on your list are stimuli that might trigger PTSD, which yes can lead to depression. Others are stimuli that can lead to chronic anxiety which yes can also lead to depression.

    Few of these things are going to be consistently happening on a college campus though — war, amputation, disfigurement, divorce — for example. Others — addiction, bankruptcy — can occur as a consequence of depression as well (substance abuse, shopping addiction). The point is that most cases of depression can’t point to an event like this as the “direct cause”.

    I think you have a rather overly simplistic view of what depression is, one that isn’t really informed by actually having experienced depression. If you speak to people with chronic depression, you’ll find that many who experience VERY REAL depressive episodes are not “triggered” by a life-altering event; such an event CAN lead to depression, but doesn’t have to. For some people, depression is a consequence of a biological imbalance in neurotransmitter regulation, but which also involves external stimuli.

  • And actually, we’re discussing in a post about Andrew Sun. Are you under the impression that anything on your list could possibly correspond to Mr Sun’s circumstances? He was, by all accounts, a friendly person, good listener, spirtual mentor. He didn’t have a disfigurement, he wasn’t suffering a chronic illness, there’s no evidence he was raped… so… what do you think happened?

  • Yun Xu

    I wasn’t referring to Sun’s case. I was just listing a few possible non-bio triggers.

    If you have some books/papers that supported your pro-psychiatry views, please let me know. I just want to see conclusive evidence either way.

  • Yun, what are you asking for — papers establishing… depression as a mental disease with biological components? I mean, this is so well-established, I wouldn’t even know where to start. I guess we could start with this pubmed search, which retrieves 55000 papers.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=depression+neurotransmitters

  • Yun Xu

    There are probably a handful of papers that form the foundation of pro-psychiatry in the same way one landmark study (flawed btw) falsely established the link between saturated fats and cardiovascular disease. This is not the only disproved medical theory btw.

    You know full well that only a fraction of those papers form the proof of a biochemical mental illness model (if there is any). The rest are just clinical trials for drugs, misc experiments, etc.

    What papers did you read to become pro-psychiatry? Please don’t give the equivalent of giyf. I’m not even trolling you right now. I actually want to see the evidence for myself but I’m not going to read 55,000 papers to get there.

  • Yun Xu

    Hey Jenn, following up since I haven’t heard back.

  • Sorry Yun – I thought I had responded to you already!

    To be honest with you, if you’re asking me what I read that establishes the biological component of mental illness, I would have to tell you that it was covered over the course of a semester in my Psych 101 course. However, there are plenty of reviews covering the body of literature on how neuronal dysregulation leads to mood disorders. For example, one of the graduate students in my program was studying the mood (and metabolic) effects of the endocannabinoid system.

    Generally, however, there’s plenty of literature showing the biological component to depression. Here’s a VERY layperson review of the genetic component of depression:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24507187

    Here’s a review of adrenergic receptor dysfunction leading to depression:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910678

    And here’s a review discussing how immune function can alter brain function leading to mood disorders

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064447

    These all might be good places to start. I haven’t read these reviews myself, specifically, being already familiar with some of this material, but I suspect based on the abstracts that they will be informative. Happy to answer any subsequent questions.

    The biggest question I have is whether you refute that depression has ANY biological/genetic component? I mean, what do you mean by “pro-psychiatry”? Is your assertion that depression is manufactured? That depression is a conspiracy to sell anti-depressant drugs that don’t work? I’m not entirely sure what your alternative theory is here.

  • Yun Xu

    I’ll take a look at those studies, but I am deeply skeptical of psychiatry for a few reasons:
    1. A history of extensive fraud
    2. The way the dsm has ballooned with new diseases each year since its creation – and done so in board meetings based on opinions.
    3. The amount of contradictions I’ve come across within and outside of psychiatry
    4. The way the drugs are marketed
    5. Very experienced psychiatrists who don’t believe there is a chemical imbalance and assert that no proof has been found to support it.

    I am willing to change my mind, but I need very strong proof.

    I am leaving a comment on the gmo article. Please take a look at it.

  • Yun Xu

    I’m unlikely to refute genetics/bio in SOME depression. After all, there are people that are born mentally challenged (even though I’m not 100% sure of the cause) or serial murderers so it’s likely that some of it is biological.

    However, I am very skeptical of claims that biology is at the root of the current mental illness epidemic.

  • Pingback: Yale mourns death of Luchang Wang ’17 by apparent suicide | Reappropriate()

  • John

    Harvard breeds thieves,Veritas

  • Pingback: Committing Suicide has become a way to avoid high stress()